Corona virus, which is currently a global problem, is a threat to human security. Since it has been declared a global pandemic, this virus has managed to eliminate thousands of lives not only in Indonesia but also in the world. In security studies, Corona viruses can be included as non-traditional security threats. In that category, the state needs to collaborate with various non-state actors; both civil and military to ensure national vigilance. Even Indonesia also needs to cooperate with other countries including ASEAN to exchange the latest information regarding the covid19.
Cooperation between domestic and inter-state actors is very urgent because the object of the attack is a person or citizen. Health threats are felt directly by the community, especially those who have inter-state mobility. In non-traditional security, the focus of attention is more on human security. Since the spread of the Corona virus depends on human contact, preventive efforts to reduce direct contact with individuals are indicated to be one of the urgent policies of a country. In the context of security studies, the Corona virus requires the participation of various national and cross-country, state and state actors.
For Indonesian diplomacy, the Corona virus incident is a challenge. In 2020, Indonesia will become chairman of the Foreign Policy and Global Health (FPGH) forum. Through this forum, Indonesia can encourage inter-country cooperation in emergency response to global health issues, including the Corona virus. The urgency of this cross-national threat turning Corona virus into a health problem requires global collaboration. Cross-border health issues or global political and economic impacts are major concerns. One focus of global health is protection against global threats that do not look at national borders. In 2019, WHO issued a report on 10 global health threats, including the Ebola virus, SARS, and MERS.
ASEAN member countries also need to be invited to work together in exchanging information regarding the development of the spread of the virus in their respective countries, national policies on prevention and rapid response mechanisms if there are indications of contracting the Corona virus. If possible ASEAN needs to build a regional cooperation framework on health threats, including the Corona virus, at the regional level. In that context, the handling of the Corona virus is no longer only a concern of various countries separately within their respective territorial borders. Cross-country cooperation is urgently needed to respond quickly to cross-border health threats, including the Corona virus.
In order for human security to challenge global inequalities, there has to be cooperation between a country’s foreign policy and its approach to global health like what the world is facing today to deal with Corona Virus. The scope of global human security could be expanded to include not only traditional political and military security but also personal, community, economic, environmental, food and health security. Governments cannot feel secure by only continuing to build up their military arsenals but by deterring other military powers from attacking the state. This requires investing in other fields as well.
The concept of human security has emerged as an essential paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities as part of a shift that goes beyond traditional security concerns. According to this paradigm, the main focus of security should be human beings rather than political entities such as states and proposes a multidisciplinary understanding of security covering many fields, such as international relations, strategic studies, human rights and development studies.
In doing so, in order to overcome these global insecurity problems, all individuals, irrespective of nationality, race, class or religion, should be granted freedom from want, meaning a provision for basic needs and conditions for a humane life, and freedom from fear, the provision of a peaceful world. In other words, governments should follow a foreign policy prioritizing not only the needs of the state but also for those of the people. Unless governments tackle global insecurity and global inequalities, they will continue to face threats emanating from various societies and countries. What we need now is how international organizations can provide treatment regarding the eradication of this deadly virus. Corona virus not only threatens humans, but also can destroy the cycle of market activity, economic decline, and also global losses.
What the world can do in the meantime is take full advantage of the window of opportunity opened by the frontline country’s initial forceful measures to show full moral and material support in the face of a common challenge. In the current corona virus battle, international cooperation has played a vital part. First, it gets the world better prepared. China notified the WHO of the corona virus outbreak and shared the virus’s genome sequence early on, reducing the world’s panic over this unknown deadly virus. Second, biomedical research cooperation is essential in any prevention and control efforts. Pooling global medical resources for drug and vaccine research is imperative for international epidemic control, especially in those countries with low levels of public health emergency preparedness. Third, international aid helps alleviate shortages of medical supplies. Temporary shortages of protective gear in the early days of the outbreak exposed medical workers and the public to greater risks of infection. Fourth, international coordination is the best way to mitigate the immediate economic impact from the outbreak and to revive global economic growth.
Hardi Alunaza SD, S.IP., M.H.I
Dosen Prodi Hubungan Internasional FISIP Universitas Tanjungpura